Model United Nations 2013

CHETTINAD VIDYASHRAM

 Model United Nations 2013          

Delegates,

It’s that time of year again! Join us as we embark on the fifth edition of CVMUN summit. This year, CVMUN hopes to outdo its previous conferences with the addition of new houses of the UN, expansion in terms of scale of the conference, and addressing issues such as tackling racism and management of nuclear wastes that need to be tackled as efficiently as possible.

Why MUN?

We, the organizing committee of the MUN, find it befitting that we let students debate on issues that concern our world today, for the simple reason because, we, the youth of today, are the leaders of tomorrow. And what better way to prepare ourselves than discuss the issues at hand and come up with viable and effective solutions to tackle these, and forthcoming obstacles? Through a MUN, students are required to research, discuss, and debate extensively on the agendas at hand, thus creating a sense of awareness among our future leaders.

We sincerely hope that CVMUN 2013 proves to be an enriching experience to all its participants.

GOOD LUCK!!

Contents

  • Committees /councils and Agendas
  • Country Profile
    • Content
    • Dates for submission
    • Presentation
  • Position Paper
    • Format
    • Dates for Submission
    • Sample FPS
  • Resolutions
    • Format
    • Sample resolution
  • General MUN procedure
  • Conduct of business
  • Parliamentary  points
  • Motions
  • Code of conduct
  • Contact Details

Committees/Councils and Agendas

Committees/Councils and Agendas

  • Disarmament and Security council(DISEC)

1)     Elucidating the concerns mustered by mutual distrust between countries thus evoking marked up procreation of WMDS and transgression of disarmament treaties.

2)     The security concerns regarding arms transfers, with conflict states and non-state actors, with special reference to Nuclear Proliferation.

  • Economic and Social Committee(ECOSOC)

1) Mainstreaming a gender perspective into all policies and programmes in the system.

2) Prevention of Money Laundering and Illicit Transfer of Funds.

  • Environment Committee(UNEP)

1)     Addressing the urgent need to diversify and enhance the availability of clean energy with core attention on increasing the efficiency of Government machinery.

2)     Addressing the need for efficient and effective post disaster/damage cleanup technologies and steps toward reviving deteriorated environments( disaster preparedness, oil spill cleanup, certification of such technologies and maintaining gene banks/ artificial backup populations of endangered species)

  • Human Rights Council(HRC)

1)     Combatting the issue of human rights violations by supreme authorities with special reference to

  1. The situation in Iran
  2. The situation in Syria

2)     Question to protect the rights of unaccompanied migrant children.

  • Security Council(SEC)

1)The issue regarding post-conflict stabilization and reconstruction with inclusion of DDR (Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration) and SSR (Security sector reform)
2) The question regarding the secession movement in the world leading to the demands of new countries with special emphasis on ethnic conflicts

  • World Health Organisation(WHO)

1) Concerns over the escalating arsenic content in food, water and other articles of consumption and its implications.

2) Production of generic drugs in all nations with or without patenting.

Country Profile

Country Profile

What should it include?

  • Conventional Long Form Country Name
  • Government Type
  • Chief Of State
  • Head of Government
  • Language(s) (note which, if any, are official)
  • Population (include year data compiled)
  • Major religions (include %)

History

  • Describe this nation’s independence (how, when, from whom etc)
  • Has your country ever controlled colonies?  (If so, where and for how long?)
  • What is your relationship with former colonies?
  • Was your nation ever a colonial possession or occupied territory?
  • If so, in whose sphere of influence and for how long?

Geography

  • Size (in sq. miles or sq. km)
  • Border countries
  • Capital
  • Major cities
  • Major ports
  • Major waterways
  • Climate

Standard of Living

  • Annual income
  • Literacy rate of total population (include year and definition)
  • Birth Rate (include year)
  • Death Rate
  • Sex Ratio (include year)
  • Infant mortality rate (include year)
  • Unemployment rate (include year)
  • Major ethnic or cultural issues
  • Current refugee/IDP concerns

Politics

  • Political allies/blocs
  • Conflicts: past and present
  • Do citizens freely participate in the political process (vote, hold office? Etc)? At what age?
  • Is there freedom of speech and of the press in this country?
  • Does this nation regularly hold national elections?
  • What are the active political parties, and is more than one party tolerated?

Economy

  • GDP and Growth rate (include year)
  • Major trade partners
  • Major exports and total amount (include year)
  • Major imports and total amount (include year)
  • Amount of Overseas Development Aid (ODA) given (include year)
  • Amount of ODA received (include year)
  • Agricultural products
  • Industries
  • Natural Resources
  • Energy Resources (include % and year)

Military

  • Military expenditures (% Gross National Product (GNP) spent on defense; include year)
  • Major weapons, arsenal, nuclear capability, etc.
  • Is this nation threatened by neighboring nations? Do these border nations have nuclear weapons?

UN Relations

  • Date admitted to UN
  • UN dues payment status
  • Has this nation signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?
  • Has the UN ever had to intervene in any conflict involving this nation? If so, what conflict(s)?

 

To be submitted when?

Each delegation must hand over their Country Profile on day one of the Conference i.e., the 20th of July, 2013.

Presentation

Delegates are requested to be as creative as possible with their country profiles without detracting attention from the content. So, bring out your inner Van Gogh, just refrain from the Mickey Mouse stickers!

Position Paper

Position Paper

A position paper is essentially a summary of a country’s position on a topic, written by a delegate before a Model UN conference. Before attending the conference, it is necessary to have a clear understanding about the workings of your country, as well as its positions on the issues that are being discussed. Position papers should contain your country’s relation to the topic, as well as its suggestions for how to solve the issues discussed.

How do I write a position paper?

Writing a position paper might appear to be a daunting task, especially for new delegates. But with enough research, you will find that writing a position paper will be easy and useful.

Position papers are usually one to one side of an A4. Your position paper should include a brief introduction followed by a comprehensive breakdown of your country’s position on the topics that are being discussed by the committee.

A good position paper will include:

  • A brief introduction to your country and its history concerning the topic and committee;
  • How the issue affects your country;
  • Your country’s policies with respect to the issue and your country’s justification for these policies;
  • Statistics to back up your country’s position on the issue;
  • Actions taken by your Government with regard to the issue;
  • Conventions and resolutions that your country has signed or ratified;
  • UN actions that your country supported or opposed;
  • What your country beliefs should be done to address the issue;
  • What your country would like to accomplish in the committee’s resolution; and;
  • How the positions of other countries affect your country’s position

When do I turn it in?

Delegates are required to mail their position papers to their respective executive board(mail id’s given at the end of the file) on or before Saturday, the 6th of July by 15:00 hrs, failing which, position papers from the delegation will not be accepted.

I’ve gone through the literature, but I’m not quite sure what my

Position paper should look like!

That’s okay, don’t get overwhelmed, just check out the sample position paper we’ve included below:

Sample Position Paper

Committee: Commission on Human Rights
Topic: Violence against Women
Country: The Kingdom of Denmark
Delegate: XYZ, (name of your institution)

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.  Although this doctrine was adopted in 1948, the world has fallen quite short of this goal. Violence against women pervades all states and it is the duty of the international community to ensure that all persons are afforded equality and respect. Despite cooperative efforts at combating gross human rights abuses, such as the adoption of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, the United Nations has not been able to alleviate the injustice women worldwide experience daily.

The Kingdom of Denmark believes that in order to end violence against women, nations must look to empower women in all aspects of society. This includes promoting equal gender roles in government, civil society, education and business. However, Denmark also recognizes the need to combat human rights abuses against women as they occur, and no nation is immune to gender violence.

In 2002, the Danish Government launched an extensive action plan to combat domestic violence against women. The plan includes measures to help treat abused women, identify and prosecute the perpetrators, and incorporate professional medical and psychological staff into the rehabilitation process. The action plan currently reaches out to both governmental and nongovernmental groups on the local level throughout the nation.

The Danish Centre for Human Rights in Copenhagen, Denmark’s foremost national human rights institution also promotes and protects human rights. Based on the Centre’s research, Denmark’s parliament can promote human rights-based legislation and education/awareness programs throughout the nation. The Centre also addresses the UN Commission on Human Rights annually regarding human rights developments in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has no record of committing major human rights violations, most importantly any targeted at women. In its 2003 Annual Report, Amnesty International also found no human rights violations against Danish women.

Women are invaluable to Denmark’s society and have achieved significant economic and social gains in the 20th century.

Currently, 75 percent of medical students in Denmark are women.

Denmark is confident that this Commission can bring about an end to violence against women without compromising the sovereignty of member states. Education remains perhaps the most useful tool in protecting victims of gender-based violence. Governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can plan a coordinated campaign that educates national populations on the various ways women are violently targeted. Similarly, harmful traditions, such as honor killings and female genital mutilation, must be stopped by reforming traditional views of women in society. Children of both sexes need to be taught at an early age to value the rights of women in order to prevent such violence in their generation.

Another way to stop gender violence would be to reproach member states that consistently violate treaties such as the Convention on Political Rights of Women (1952), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979), and the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993). Although this Committee cannot impose sanctions, it can pass resolutions verbally condemning states that commit human rights violations. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights can also meet with representatives of governments that violate the above treaties to discuss possible solutions. In order to prevent gender violence, nations must work together to build a culture of support, equality and community. As such, the Kingdom of Denmark looks forward to offering its support, in whatever form possible, to nations firmly committed to ending violence against women in all its forms.

Resolutions

Resolutions

The final results of discussion, writing and negotiation are resolutions-written suggestions for addressing a specific problem or issue. Resolutions, which are drafted by delegates and voted on by the committee, normally require a simple majority to pass. Only Security Council resolutions can compel nations to take action. All other UN bodies use resolutions to make recommendations or suggestions for future action.

Draft Resolutions

Draft resolutions are all resolutions that have not yet been voted on. Delegates write draft resolutions alone or with other countries. There are three main parts to a draft resolution: the heading, the preamble and the operative section. The heading shows the committee and topic along with the resolution number.

It also lists the draft resolution’s Main Submitters and signatories. Each draft resolution is one long sentence with sections separated by commas and semicolons. The subject of the sentence is the body making the statement (e.g., the General assembly, or Security Council). The preamble and operative sections then describe the current situation and actions that the committee will take. The first word in each clause should be underlined. All operative clauses end with a semicolon except the final clause, which ends with a period.

Bringing a Resolution to the Floor for Debate

A draft resolution must always gain the support of a certain number of member states in the committee before the main submitters (the delegates who created the resolution) may submit it to the chair. A staff member will read the draft resolution to ensure that it is relevant and in proper format. Only when the chair formally accepts the document and assigns it a number can it be referred to in formal debate.

The basic structure of a draft resolution will look like this:

(HEADING)

Committee: i.e. the committee or organ in which the resolution is introduced

Topic: the topic of the resolution.

Main submitters: list of sponsoring countries.

Signatories: list of countries that have signed the draft.

(PREAMBLE)

The preamble of a draft resolution states the reason for which the committee is addressing the topic and highlights past international action on the issue. Each clause begins with a present participle (called a perambulatory phrase) and ends with a comma.

  • References to the UN Charter,
  • Citations of past UN  resolutions or treaties on the topic under discussion;
  • Mentions of statements made by the Secretary-General or a relevant UN body or agency;
  • Recognition of the efforts of regional or nongovernmental organizations in dealing with the issue; and
  • General statements on the topic, its significance and its impact.

Operative Clauses

Operative clauses identify the actions or recommendations made in a resolution. Each operative clause begins with a verb (called an operative phrase) and ends with a semicolon. Operative clauses should be organized in a logical progression, with each containing a single idea or proposal, and are always numbered. If a clause requires further explanation, bulleted lists set off by letters or roman numerals can also be used. After the last operative clause, the resolution ends in a period.

Okay, I honestly can’t figure out how to word it

Fear not first time MUNers, we know the feeling. All you have to do is go through this sample resolution, understand the format, and you’re good to go.

 General Assembly Third CommitteeMain submitters: United States, Austria and Italy
Signatories: Greece, Tajikistan, Japan, Canada, Mali, the Netherlands and Gabon
Topic: “Strengthening UN coordination of humanitarian assistance in complex emergencies”

The General Assembly,

Reminding all nations of the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which recognizes the inherent dignity, equality and inalienable rights of all global citizens, [use commas to separate preambulatory clauses]

Reaffirming its Resolution 33/1996 of 25 July 1996, which encourages Governments to work with UN bodies aimed at improving the coordination and effectiveness of humanitarian assistance,

Noting with satisfaction the past efforts of various relevant UN bodies and nongovernmental organizations,

Stressing the fact that the United Nations faces significant financial obstacles and is in need of reform, particularly in the humanitarian realm,

1. Encourages all relevant agencies of the United Nations to collaborate more closely with countries at the grassroots level to enhance the carrying out of relief efforts; [use semicolons to separate operative clauses]

2. Urges member states to comply with the goals of the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs to streamline efforts of humanitarian aid;

3. Requests that all nations develop rapid deployment forces to better enhance the coordination of relief efforts of humanitarian assistance in complex emergencies;

4. Calls for the development of a United Nations Trust Fund that encourages voluntary donations from the private transnational sector to aid in funding the implementation of rapid deployment forces;

5. Stresses the continuing need for impartial and objective information on the political, economic and social situations and events of all countries;

6. Calls upon states to respond quickly and generously to consolidated appeals for humanitarian assistance; and

7. Requests the expansion of preventive actions and assurance of post-conflict assistance through reconstruction and development. [end resolutions with a period]

 

AMENDMENTS, I don’t quite agree with part of this resolution, what do I do?

Approved draft resolutions are modified through amendments. An amendment is a written statement that adds, deletes or revises an operative clause in a draft resolution. The amendment process is used to strengthen consensus on a resolution by allowing delegates to change certain sections. There are two types of amendments:

A friendly amendment is a change to the draft resolution that all sponsors agree with. After the amendment is signed by all of the draft resolution’s sponsors and approved by the committee director or president, it will be automatically incorporated into the resolution.

An unfriendly amendment is a change that some or all of the draft resolution’s sponsors do not support and must be voted upon by the committee. The author(s) of the amendment will need to obtain a required number of signatories in order to introduce it (usually 20 percent of the committee). Prior to voting on the draft resolution, the committee votes on all unfriendly amendments.

Ultimately, resolutions passed by a committee represent a great deal of debate and compromise. They are the tangible results of hours if not days of Model UN debate. As a result, it is important to become familiar with the resolution process and practice drafting resolutions using the proper structure and wording.

SAMPLE OF AN AMENDMENT

Committee: General Assembly

Subject: Strengthening U.N. Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance

Main submitters: France, Romania and Poland

Signatories: Togo, Australia, Fiji, Brazil, Pakistan and Argentina

Add as the final operative clause…

Requests the expansion of preventive actions and assurance of post conflict assistance through reconstruction and development.

Opening Phrases;

These phrases are to be used at the beginning of your clauses to stress the nature of the clause.   

Sample Preambulatory Phrases

Affirming
Alarmed by
Approving
Aware of
Bearing in mind
Believing
Confident
Contemplating
Convinced
Declaring
Deeply concerned
Deeply conscious
Deeply convinced
Deeply disturbed
Deeply regretting
Desiring
Emphasizing
Expecting
Expressing its appreciation
Expressing its satisfaction
Fulfilling
Fully alarmed
Fully aware
Fully believing
Further deploring
Further recalling
Guided by
Having adopted
Having considered
Having considered further
Having devoted attention
Having examined
Having heardHaving received
Having studied
Keeping in mind
Noting with regret
Noting with deep concern
Noting with satisfaction
Noting further
Noting with approval
Observing
Reaffirming
Realizing
Recalling
Recognizing
Referring
Seeking
Taking into account
Taking into consideration
Taking note
Viewing with appreciationWelcoming

Sample Operative Phrases

Accepts
Affirms
Approves
Authorizes
Calls
Calls upon
Condemns
Confirms
Congratulates
Considers
Declares accordingly
Deplores
Designates
Draws the attention
Emphasizes
Encourages
Endorses
Expresses its appreciation
Expresses its hope
Further invites
Deplores
Designates
Draws the attention
Emphasizes
Encourages
Endorses
Expresses its appreciation
Expresses its hope
Further invites
Further proclaims
Further reminds
Further recommends
Further requests
Further resolves
Has resolved
Notes
Proclaims
Reaffirms
Recommends
Regrets
Reminds
Requests
Solemnly affirms
Strongly condemns
Supports
Takes note of
Transmits
Trusts

General MUN Procedure

General MUN Procedure

How to go about the MUN

It is sometimes helpful to think of a Model UN conference as if it were a play in which delegates are the actors and Secretariat members are the directors. The storyline of a stage show is similar to what Model UNers call the “flow of debate” – the order in which events proceed during a Model UN conference. Just like scenes in a theatrical performance, debate unfolds in several different parts. The chart below shows the various stages of debate that take place during a Model UN simulation. Being familiar with how the action will proceed, from the first “scene” to the last, is an important way to prepare yourself for a Model UN conference.

Roll Call

The Chairperson will announce each country’s name. After delegates hear their country, they should answer “present.” Delegates must specify whether “present and voting”, implying that they must participate in voting procedures either for or against the resolution/clause/amendment. Delegates indicating “present and voting” will be suspended from session if they do not vote during the procedures. Delegates who wish to abstain from voting must simply confirm their presence for session.

Setting the Agenda

When Model UN committees have more than one topic available, the body must set the agenda to begin working on one of these issues. At this time a delegate typically makes a motion, stating “The country of [name] moves to place [topic A] first on the agenda, followed by [topic B] and then [topic C].” Once the motion has been made, three delegations must speak in favor of the motion, and three other delegations will speak against it. These speeches should alternate between those in favor and those opposed. Once these six speeches have been given, a vote is taken. Setting the agenda requires a simple majority vote.

Debate

Formal Debate: Formal debate revolves around a speakers list. The Chair begins by asking all delegates interested in addressing the other members to raise their placards. The Chair then chooses delegates to be placed on the speakers list. A country may only be on the speakers list once, but delegates may add their country to the end of the list after their speech. Informal Debate: Informal debate involves discussion outside of the speakers list. During moderated caucuses, the Chair calls on delegates one-by-one so that each can address the committee in short speeches. During unmoderated caucuses, the committee breaks for a temporary recess so that delegates may meet with each other and discuss ideas.
1. When the session begins, speeches focus on stating country positions and offering recommendations for action. 1. After several countries state their positions, the committee breaks for caucuses (often in blocs) to develop regional positions.
2. After blocs have met, speeches focus on describing bloc positions to the entire body. 2. Writing begins as countries work together to compose draft resolutions.
3. Delegates now make statements describing their draft resolutions to the committee. 3. Countries and groups meet to gather support for specific draft resolutions.
4. Delegates try to garner more support through formal speeches and invite others to offer their ideas. 4. Delegates finalize draft resolutions.
5. Delegates make statements supporting or disagreeing with specific draft resolutions. 5. Draft-resolution sponsors build greater support for their resolution and look to incorporate others’ ideas through friendly amendments.
6. Delegates present any amendments they have created.

Close of Debate

Once the speakers list is exhausted, the committee automatically moves to voting. Also, once a delegate feels that his or her country’s position is clear to others and that there are enough draft resolutions on the floor, he or she may make a motion to proceed into voting procedure by moving for the closure of debate.

Voting Procedures

Once a motion to close debate has been approved, the committee moves into voting procedure. Amendments are voted on first, then resolutions. Once all of the resolutions are voted on, the committee moves to the next topic on the agenda.

Conduct of Business

Conduct of Business

I’ve figured out what I have to do at the conference, how exactly does the whole thing start?

 

Speakers List

The Chair shall open the speakers list for each topic to be discussed at the request of a delegate. Any

Delegate wishing to be added to the speakers list shall indicate so when asked by the Chair or shall submit such a request in writing to the dais.

 

Limitation of Speaking Time

The Chair may limit the time allotted to each speaker. However, delegates can motion to increase or

decrease the speaking time, which will be voted upon by the committee or council. When a delegate

exceeds his or her allotted time, the Chair may call the speaker to order without delay.

 

 

Speeches

No delegate may address the body without the previously obtained permission of the Chair. The Chair may call a speaker to order if his/her remarks are not relevant to the subject under discussion. The Chair shall enforce the time limit.

 

 

Yielding Time

The delegate, who has been recognized by the Chair to address the body on a substantive issue, may yield any time following their remarks after their speech. Yields may be made in three ways: to another delegate, to points of information (questions), or to the Chair.

  • Yield to another delegate. His/her remaining time shall be given to another delegate.
  • Yield to questions. Delegates shall be selected by the Chair to ask one question per speech. The

Chair has the right to call order to any delegate whose question is, in the opinion of the Chair,                                                                                                           >             not designed to elicit information. Answers to questions are limited to the time remaining in a

Delegate’s speech.

  •  Yield to the Chair. Such a yield should be made if the delegate does not wish his/her speech to be subject to comments. The Chair shall then move on to the next speaker. Once a delegate yields his/her time, the second delegate (the one who has been yielded to) may not yield any remaining time.

 

Right of Reply

The Chair may recognize the Right of Reply only in instances of a grave personal insult. Rights of Reply

must be submitted in writing to the Chair, and may only be granted after a speech is completed. The Chair shall inform the Secretary-General of the circumstances surrounding the Right of Reply. No ruling on this matter is subject to appeal.

 

Appeal to the Chair’s Decision

An appeal is made when a delegate feels that the Chair has made an incorrect ruling. The delegate formally challenges the Chair in writing by sending a note to the dais, moving to appeal the Chair’s decision. The appeal will be taken to the Deputy-Secretary General who will decide if the appeal will be considered. Once the motion is acknowledged, the Deputy-Secretary General will hear from both the delegate and the Chair before making a decision.